Glossary

  1. Ashrei: a prayer that is recited at least three times daily in Jewish prayers

  2. Av – fifth month of the Jewish year

  3. Bar Mitzvah – an [agent] who is subject to the law after the ceremonial ritual at 13 years of age

  4. Barhu – bless ye

  5. Birkat Kohanim – blessing of priests

  6. Bore Peri Haadamah – blessing for the fruit of the ground

  7. Bore Peri Haetz – blessing for the fruit of the tree

  8. Elul – sixth month of the Jewish year

  9. Eruv inter-community court

  10. Eruv Tavshilin – the preparation of cooked food prior to a Jewish holiday that will be followed by Shabbat

  11. Etrog – yellow citron or Citrus medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot

  12. Habbaah bekisnin bread filled with fruit, meat, cheese

  13. Hagomel – blessing of Thanksgiving

  14. Hakkafot – ceremony where synagogue members carry Torah scrolls around the synagogue seven or more times

  15. Hallah; Hallot – challah; bread

  16. Hametz – food forbidden for use by Jew during the festival of Passover

  17. Hamotzi – blessing over bread

  18. Hanukkah – Festival of Lights

  19. Hatov Vehametiv baruhu – fourth blessing calling G-d the good King

  20. Havdalah – ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Shabbat and Jewish holidays, and ushers in the new week

  21. Hazan – cantor of a synagogue

  22. Hol Hammoed – intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot

  23. Hoshana Rabbah – seventh day of the Jewish holiday of Sukkot

  24. Kaddish – a hymn of praises to G-d

  25. Karmeelitneither public nor private

  26. Kedushah – the third section of all Amidah recitations

  27. Kiddush – a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat and Jewish holidays

  28. Kinyan symbolical form of making an agreement binding by handing over an object from one to the other of the contracting parties

  29. Kittle – white robe

  30. Kohen; Kohanim – priest

  31. Lulav – a closed frond of the date palm tree and one of the Four Species used during the Jewish holiday of Sukkot

  32. Maariv – Jewish prayer service held in evening or night

  33. Maftir – the last person called up to the Torah on Shabbat and holiday morning

  34. Mashiv Haruah – prayer praising G-d as the source of rain

  35. Matzah – unleavened bread

  36. Megillah – tenth Tractate of Mishnah in the Order Moed. It and its Gemara deal with the laws of Purim and offers exegetical understandings to the Book of Esther

  37. Mezemor letodah a Psalm of Thanksgiving offering

  38. Mezuzah; Mezuzot – small, prayer scrolls rolled up to place on doorways, entryways, and gates

  39. Minhah – prayers offered in the afternoon

  40. Minyan – quorum of ten male adults

  41. Modim prayer of thanks

  42. Muktzeh – separated; set aside

  43. Nisan – first month of the Jewish year

  44. Onan – a person who is bound to observe mourning

  45. Orlah – fruits of the first three years

  46. Pesah – Passover

  47. Pesuke Dezimerah – special verses of Psalms

  48. Retzeh accept

  49. Rosh Hashanah – Jewish New Year

  50. Rosh Hodesh – name for the first day of every month in the Hebrew calendar, marked by the birth of a new moon

  51. Seder – order; program

  52. Sefer Torah – handwritten copy of the Torah, the holiest book within Judaism

  53. Sefirah – to express or communicate; Lights and Vessels

  54. Shatnez – cloth containing both wool and linen

  55. Shavuot – marks the giving of the Torah on Mt. Sinai

  56. Shehakol – blessing for animal products: meat, chicken, fish, and eggs; water and all other drinks (except for wine) and soups; and miscellaneous foods like mushrooms, candy, etc.

  57. Shema – three portions of the Holy Scriptures in Deuteronomy and Numbers; one of only two prayers that are specifically commanded in Torah

  58. Shemini Atzeret – eighth [day of] Assembly; a Jewish holiday celebrated in the Hebrew month of Tishrei, which follows the Jewish festival of Sukkot

  59. Shemoneh Esreh – eighteen; silent prayer

  60. Simchat Torah – a Jewish holiday that celebrates and marks the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings, and the beginning of a new cycle

  61. Sukkah – temporary hut constructed for use during the week-long Jewish festival of Sukkot

  62. Sukkot one of Judaism’s three central harvest festivals

  63. Tahanun – petition of Grace

  64. Talith – prayer shawl

  65. Tal Umatar – Rain and Dew liturgy

  66. Tammuz – fourth month of the Jewish year

  67. Tefillin – phylacteries 

  68. Tishrei – the first month of the civil year

  69. Tzitsis – Fringes

  70. Uva Letziyon – Hebrew opening words and the name of the closing prayer of the weekday morning service.

  71. Vayomer Adonai “and the Lord said”

  72. Yahrzeit – memorial for the death of a loved one

  73. Yom Kippur – Day of Atonement